Epidural Injection requires high level of precision and skill from the
administering physician since improperly performed procedure can result
in serious complications for the patient. We have developed an epidural
injection simulator with a force feedback device to simulate interactions
between the needle and vertebra or soft-tissues. An additional degree
of freedom through an actual syringe was incorporated to simulate the
"loss of resistance" effect, commonly considered to be the most reliable
method of identifying the epidual space during an injection procedure.
Evaluation of the simulator by experienced physicians indicates that the
simulation system has considerable potential to become a useful aid in
Thao Dang, Thiru Annaswamy, MA Srinivas, (2001) Development and evaluation
of an epidural Injection Simulator with force feedback for medical trining.
Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:10, Newport Beach.