quantify human control of forces, we have conducted experiments under a
wide variety of conditions: (1) Tracking of visual displays of static and
dynamic force traces with a stationary fingerpad (isometric case), (2) Maintaining
constant contact force on a moving robot end-effector (isotonic case), (3)
sensing and control of torque applied on the shaft of an "Instrumented Screw
Driver", and (4) Control of grasp forces on an "Active Instrumented Object".
The data from each of these experiments have been analyzed with the viewpoint
of developing engineering specifications of human haptic performance.